Papers

The list below includes all papers written by the RAPID 26°N team and their collaborators, arranged by publication year.

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

2016

Large-scale forcing of the European Slope Current and associated inflows to the North Sea
Robert Marsh, Ivan D. Haigh, Stuart A. Cunningham, Mark E. Inall, Marie Porter and Ben I. Moat
Ocean Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/os-2016-61

Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 European heat wave
Aurelie Duchez, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Simon Josey, Dafydd Evans, Jeremy Grist, Robert Marsh, Gerard McCarthy, Bablu Sinha, David Berry, and Joel J.-M. Hirschi
Environmental Research Letters, 11,7 , doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074004

Major Variations in Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Heat Transport at Short (5 day) Timescales and their Causes
Ben Moat, Simon Josey , Bablu Sinha , Adam Blaker , David Smeed , Gerard McCarthy , William Johns , Joël Hirschi , Eleanor Frajka-Williams , D. Rayner , Aurélie Duchez and Andrew Coward
JGR Oceans, 121, 3237-3249. DOI: 10.1002/2016JC011660.

Compensation between meridional flow components of the Atlantic MOC at 26°¿N
E. Frajka-Williams, C. S. Meinen, W. E. Johns, D. A. Smeed, A. Duchez, A. J. Lawrence, D. A. Cuthbertson, G. D. McCarthy, H. L. Bryden, M. O. Baringer, B. I. Moat, and D. Rayner
Ocean Sci., 12, 481-493, doi:10.5194/os-12-481-2016

2015

Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]
Baringer, M. O.,McCarthy G. D.,Willis. J.,Smeed, D. A., Rayner, D.,Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Lankhorst, M.,Send, U.,Cunningham, S. A., Kanzow, T. O.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 96 (7), S78-S80.

Historical analogues of the recent extreme minima observed in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26°N.
Blaker, A. T., Hirschi, J. J-M., McCarthy, G., Sinha, B., Taws, S., Marsh, R., Coward, A., de Cuevas, B.
Climate Dynamics,(44),457-473, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2274-6

Potential for seasonal prediction of Atlantic sea surface temperatures using the RAPID array at 26¿N
Duchez, A., Courtois, P.,Harris, E.,Josey,S.A., Kanzow T., Marsh R., Smeeed, D.A., Hirschi, J. J-M.
Climate Dynamics, 1-20,doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2918-1

Estimating the Atlantic overturning at 26N using satellite altimetry and cable measurements
Frajka-Williams, E.
Geophysicai Research Letters, 42. doi: 10.1002/2015GL063220

Compensation between meridional flow components of the AMOC at 26° N
Frajka-Williams E., Meinen C.S., Johns W.E., Smeed D.A., Duchez A., Lawrence A.J., Cuthbertson D.A., McCarthy G.D.,Bryden H. L., Moat B.I., Rayner D.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 12, 2705-2741, doi:10.5194/osd-12-2705-2015

Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations
McCarthy, G.D.,Haigh, I. D.,Hirschi, J. J-M, Grist, J. P, Smeed, D. A.
Nature 521, 508-510. doi:10.1038/nature14491

The influence of ocean variations on the climate of Ireland.
McCarthy, G.D., Gleeson, E., Walsh, S.
Weather, 70(8), 242-245. doi: 10.1002/wea.2543

Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N.
McCarthy, G.D., Smeed, D.A., Johns, W.E., Frajka-Williams, E., Moat, B.I.; Rayner, D., Baringer, M.O., Meinen, C.S., Collins, J., Bryden, H.L.
Progress in Oceanography, 130, 91-111, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.10.006

Continuous Estimate of Atlantic Oceanic Fr eshwater Flux at 26.5°N
McDonagh E. L., King B. A., Bryden H. L., Courtois P., Szuts Z., Baringer M., Cunningham S. A., Atkinson C., McCarthy G.
J. Climate, 28, 8888¿8906. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00519.1

The Canary Basin contribution to the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N
Perez-Hernandez, M. D., McCarthy G. D., Velez-Belchi P., Smeed, D.A., Fraile-Nuez E.,Hernandez-Guerra A.
JGR Oceans, 120, 7237-7252, DOI: 10.1002/2015JC010969

Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises
Srokosz, M. A., Bryden H. L.
Science 348 (6241), 1255575. doi: 10.1126/science.1255575

2014

Observed decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 2004 to 2012.
Smeed, D. A., McCarthy, G., Cunningham, S. A., Frajka-Williams, E., Rayner, D., Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Baringer, M. O., Moat, B. I., Duchez, A., and Bryden, H. L.
Ocean Sci., 10, 28-38, doi: 10.5194/osd-10-29-2014.

A new index for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N.
Duchez, A., Hirschi, J. J. M., Cunningham, S. A., Blaker, A. T., Bryden, H.L., De Cuevas, Atkinson, C. P., McCarthy, G. D., Frajka-Williams, E., Rayner, D., Smeed, D., and Mizielinski, M. S.
J. Climate, 27, 6439-6455, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00052.1

Seasonal to interannual variability in density around the Canary Islands and their influence on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N.
Duchez, A., Frajka-Williams, E., Castro, N., Hirschi, J. J. M., Coward, A.
J. Geophysical Reasearch, 119, 1843-1860, doi:10.1002/2013JC009416.

The observed North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, its meridional coherence and ocean bottom pressure.
Elipot, S., Frajka-Williams, E., Hughes, C. W. and Willis, J. K.
J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 517-537. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-026.1.

The Atlantic Overturning Circulation: More evidence of variability and links to climate
Carton J., Cunningham, S. A., Frajka-Williams, E., Kwon, Y.-O., Marshall, D. P., Msadek, R.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95:ES163¿ES166. 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00234.1

Vertical structure of eddies and Rossby waves and their effect on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5N.
Clément, L., Frajka-Williams, E., Szuts, Z. B., Cunningham, S. A.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 119:6479¿6498. doi:10.1002/2014JC010146

Impact of a 30% reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning during 2009¿2010
H. L. Bryden, B. A. King, G. D. McCarthy, and E. L. McDonagh
Ocean Science, 10, 683-691, doi:10.5194/os-10-683-2014

Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]
Baringer, M. O.,McCarthy G. D.,Willis. J.,Lankhorst, M.;Smeed, D. A.,Send, U.; Rayner, D., Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Cunningham, S.A., Kanzow, T. O.,Frajka-Williams, E., Marotzke, J.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 95 (7), S67-S69.

Impact of Barents Sea winter air-sea exchanges on Fram Strait dense water transport
Moat, B.I.; Josey, S.; Sinha, B.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 119 (2). 1009-1021. 10.1002/2013JC009220

2013

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean.
Cunningham, S. A., Roberts, C., Johns, W. E., Hobbs, W., Frajka-Williams, E., Palmer, M., McCarthy, G., Rayner, D. and Smeed, D. A.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6202-6207, doi: 10.1002/2013GL058464

[Global Oceans] Meridional overturning circulation and heat transport observations in the Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2012"].
M. O. Baringer, W. E. Johns, G. McCarthy, J. Willis, S. Garzoli, M. Lankhorst, C. S. Meinen, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, D. A. Smeed, T. O. Kanzow, P. Heimbach, E. Frajka-Williams, A. Macdonald, S. Dong, and J. Marotzke
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94(8), S65-S68.

Eddy impacts on the Florida Current.
Frajka-Williams, E., W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, L. M. Beal, and S. A. Cunningham,
Geophys Res Let, 40(2), 349-353, doi:10.1002/grl.50115.

Observed and simulated variability of the AMOC at 26°N and 41°N.
Mielke, C., E. Frajka-Williams, and J. Baehr
Geophys Res Let. 40, 1159-1164, doi:10.1002/grl.50233

Atmosphere drives recent interannual variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N.
Roberts, C. D., Waters, J., Peterson, K. A., Palmer, M., McCarthy, G. D., Frajka-Williams, E. F., Haines, K. et al.
Geophys Res Let, 40, 1-7, doi:10.1002/grl.50930

2012

Atlantic transport variability at 25°N in six hydrographic sections
Atkinson C., Bryden H.L., Cunningham S.A. and King B.A.
Ocean Sci. Discuss., 6, 8, 497¿523, doi:10.5194/os-8-497-2012.

Chaotic variability of the meridional overturning circulation on subannual to interannual timescales
Hirschi J. J.-M., A. T. Blaker, B. Sinha, A. Coward, B. de Cuevas, S. Alderson and G. Madec.
Ocean Sci. Discuss. 9, 3191-3238,

Observed Interannual Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N
McCarthy G. D., Frajka-Williams E., Johns W. E., Baringer M. O., Meinen C. S., Bryden H. L., Rayner D., Duchez A., Roberts C. D. and Cunningham S.A.
Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L19609 .

Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean
Baringer M. O., Cunningham S.A., Meinen C. S., Garzoli S., Willis J., Lankhorst M., Macdonald A., Send U., Hobbs W. R., Frajka-Williams E., Kanzow T. O., Rayner D., Johns W. E., Bryden H. L. and Marotzke J.
in State of the Climate in 2011, Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., in press.

Multiyear Prediction of Monthly Mean Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N
Matei D., Baehr J., Jungclaus J.H., Haak H., Muller W.A., Marotzke J.
Science. 335, 76-79

On the sub-decadal variability of South Atlantic Antarctic Intermediate Water
McCarthy G.D., King B.A., Cipollini P., McDonagh E.L., Blundell J.R. and Biastoch A.
Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L10605, doi:10.1029/2012GL051270.

Past, present and future change in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
Srokoz M.A., Baringer M.O., Bryden H.L., Cunningham S.A., Delworth T., Lozier S., Marotzke J. and Suttion R.
Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 10.1175/BAMS-D-1111-00151.00151.

A vertical-mode decomposition to investigate low-frequency internal motion across the Atlantic at 26N
Sztus Z.B., Blundell J.R., Chidichimo M.-P. and Marotzke J.
Ocean Sci. 8, 345-367.

2011

Detecting changes in the meridional overturning circulation at 26°N in the Atlantic from observations
Baehr J.
Deep-Sea Research Part II,58, 1833-1836.

Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic, in State of the Climate in 2010
Baringer M.O. et al.
Bull. Am. Met. Soc.,92, S95-S98.

South Atlantic overturning circulation at 24°S
Bryden H.L., King B.A. and McCarthy G.D.
J. Mar. Res.69(1), 38-55.

Variability of Antarctic bottom water at 26.5°N in the Atlantic
Frajka-Williams E., Cunningham S.A., Bryden H.L. and Hirschi J.J-M.
J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans. 116(C11), C11026.

Continuous, array-based estimates of Atlantic Ocean heat transport at 26.5°N
Johns W.E., Baringer M.O, Beal L.M., Cunningham S.A., Kanzow T., Bryden H.L., Hirschi J.J.-M., Marotzke J., Meinen C.S., Shaw B. and Curry R.
Journal of Climate. 24(10), 2429-2449.

Historical variability in Atlantic meridional baroclinic transport at 26.5°N from boundary dynamic height observations
Longworth H.R., Bryden H.L. and Baringer M.O.
Deep Sea Research Part II: Tropical Studies in Oceanography. 58, 1754-1767.

Monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
Rayner D. and Kanzow T.
International Journal of the Society for Underwater Technology. 29(4), 159-171.

Monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
Rayner D. et al.
Deep-Sea Research Part II. 58 (17-18), 1744-1753.

2010

Observing and modelling changes in the Atlantic MOC
Cunningham S.A. and R. Marsh
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change,1, 180-190.

The present and future system for measuring the Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation and heat transport
Cunningham S.A. et al.
OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observation and Information for Society (Vol2), WPP-306,1

Deep circulation and meridonal overturing, Recent progress and a strategy for sustained observations
Rintoul S.R. et al.
OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observation and Information for Society (Vol2), [in press]

On the seasonal cycles and variability of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports at 26°N in the Atlantic Ocean
Atkinson C.P., Bryden H.L., Hirschi J. J.-M. , Kanzow T.
Ocean Science. 6,837-859, doi:10.5194/os-6-837-2010.

Seasonal variability of the Atlantic meridonal overturning circulation at 26.5N
Kanzow T., S.A. Cunningham, W.E. Johns, J.J.-M. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, M.O. Baringer, C.S. Meinen, M.P. Chidichimo, C. Atkinson, L.M. Beal, H.L. Bryden, J. Collins
Journal of Climate,23,5678-5698, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3389.1

The contribution of eastern-boundary density variations to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N
Chidichimo M.P., Kanzow T., Cunningham S.A., Johns W.E. and Marotzke J.
Ocean Science 6, 475-490, doi:10.5194/os-6-475-2010,

2009

Basin-wide integrated volume transports in an eddy-filled ocean
Kanzow T., H. Johnson, D. Marshall, S.A. Cunningham, J.J.-M. Hirschi, A. Mujahid, H.L. Bryden, W.E. Johns
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39 , 3091-3110, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4185.1

Observed and simulated daily variability of the meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N in the Atlantic
Baehr, J., S. A. Cunningham, H. Haak, P. Heimbach, T. Kanzow, and J. Marotzke
Ocean Science 5, 575-589, doi: 10.5194/os-5-575-2009

Adjustment of the basin-scale circulation at 26°N to variations in Gulf Stream, deep western boundary current and Ekman transports as observed by the RAPID array
Bryden H.L., Mujahid A., Cunningham S.A. and Kanzow T.
Ocean Science, 5, 421-433, doi:10.5194/os-5-421-2009.

Sea Surface height signals as indicators for oceanic meridional mass transports
Hirschi J.J.-M., Killworth P.D., Blundell J.R., Cromwell D.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 581-601, DOI: 10.1175/2008JPO3923.1

2008

On the variability of the deep meridional transports in the tropical North Atlantic
Kanzow T., Send U. and McCartney M.S.
Deep Sea Research I, 55 , 1601-1623, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.07.011

Five years of Florida Current Structure and Transport measured from the Royal Caribbean Cruise ship Explorer of the Seas
Beal L., Williams E., Hummon J., Brown O., Kearus E., Baringer, W.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C06001, doi:10.1029/2007/JC004154

Variability of shallow and deep western boundary currents off the Bahamas during 2004-2005: First results from the 26°N RAPID-MOC array
Johns W.E., Beal L.M., Baringer M.O., Molina J., Cunningham S.A., Kanzow T., Rayner D.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 38, 605-623,

A prototype system of observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation - scientific basis, measurement and risk mitigation strategies, and first results
Kanzow, T., J. J.-M. Hirschi, C. S. Meinen, D. Rayner, S. A. Cunningham, J. Marotzke, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, L. M. Beal, and M. O. Baringer, 2008
Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1, 19-28,

Detecting potential changes in the meridional overturning circulation at 26°N in the Atlantic
Baehr J., Keller K. and Marotzke J.
Climatic Change, 91, 11-27, doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9153-z.

2007

Temporal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N
Cunningham S.A., Kanzow T., Rayner D., Baringer M.O., Johns W.E., Marotzke J., Longworth H.R. Grant E.M., Hirschi J.J.-M., Beal L.M., Meinen C.S., Bryden H.L.
Science, 317 , 935-938, doi:10.1126/science.1141304,

Flow compensation associated with the meridional overturning
Kanzow T., Cunningham S.A, Rayner D., Hirschi J.J.-M., Johns W.E., Baringer M.O., Bryden H.L., Beal L.M., Meinen C.S., Marotzke J.
Science, 317 , 938-941, doi:10.1126/science.1141293,

Timely detection of changes in the meridional overturning circulation at 26°N
Baehr J., Haak H., Alderson S., Cunningham S.A., Jungclaus J.H., Marotzke J.
Journal of Climate, 20, 5827-5841,

Subannual, seasonal and interannual variability of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
Hirschi J., Killworth P.D., Blundell J.R.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37, 1246-1265, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO3049.1

Reconstructing the meridional overturning circulation from boundary densities and the zonal wind stress
Hirschi J. and Marotzke J.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37, 3, 743-763, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO3019.1

On the accuracy of North Atlantic temperature and heat storage fields from Argo
Hadfield R.E., Wells N.C., Josey S.A., Hirschi J.J.-M.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, c01009, doi:1029/JC003825.

2006

Ocean margin densities and paleoestimates of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: a model study
Hirschi J., Lynch-Stieglitz J.
Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems , 7, doi:10.1029/2006GC001301

Variability in Deep Western Boundary Current transports: Preliminary results from 26.5°N in the Atlantic.
Meinen, C.S., M.O. Baringer, and S.L. Garzoli
Geophys. Res. Letters, 2006. 33(17) doi:10.1029/2006GL026965

Monitoring the deep integrated meridional flow in the tropical North Atlantic Long-term performance of a geostrophic array
Kanzow T., Send U., Zenk W., Chave A. and Rhein M.
Deep Sea Research I, 2006, 53, 528-546 doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2005.12.007

2005

Ocean gyres and abrupt change in the thermohaline circulation: a conceptual analysis.
Longworth, H., J. Marotzke, and T.F. Stocker J. Climate, 2005. 18(13): p. doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3397.1.

Slowing of the Atlantic Overturning Circulation at 26°N
Bryden H.L., Longworth H.R. and Cunningham S.A.
Nature, 438, pp 655-657.

Seasonal variation of ocean bottom pressure derived from GRACE: Local validation and global patterns
Kanzow T., Flechtner F., Chave A., Schmidt R., Schwintzerm P. and Send U.
Journal of Geophysical Research, 2005. 110(C09001): p. doi:10.1029/2004JC002772.

Estimating ocean transports with dynamic height moorings: An application in the Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current at 26°N
Johns W.E., Kanzow T. and Zantopp R.
Deep Sea Research, 2005. 52(8): p. 1542-1567. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2005.02.002

Deep Western Boundary Current East of Abaco: Mean structure and transport
Bryden H.L., Johns W.E. and Saunders P.M.
Journal of Marine Research, 2005. 63: p. 35-57. doi:10.1357/0022240053693806

2004

Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic: A model-based array design study
Baehr J., Hirschi J., Beismann J.O. and Marotzke J.
Journal of Marine Research, 62, No 3, pp 283-312.

A Long duration mooring for ocean observation.
Frye, D., N. Hogg, and C. Wunsch
Sea Technology, 2004. 45(6): p. 29-39. doi: 10.1109/OCEANS.2002.1193251

2003

A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation
Hirschi J., Baehr J., Marotzke J., Stark J., Cunningham S.A. and Beismann J.O.
Geophysical Research Letters, 30, No 7, doi:10.1029/2002GL016776

2001

Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27N
Baringer and Larsen.
Geophysical Research Letters, 28, No 16, pp3179-3182, DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013246